# Table of Contents

This is a work in progress. I’ll upload sections and chapters as I finish them.

# Introduction

## About This Book

## Logic as a Tool for Thinking Carefully

## The Value of Formal Reasoning Tools

# Basic Concepts

## Evidence, Reasons, and Arguments

## Sentences and Propositions

## Recognizing Premises and Conclusions

# Modal Logic

## Possibility and Necessity

## Possible World Semantics

## Well-formed Formulas (WFFs) of Modal Logic

## Symbolizing Modal Propositions

## Modal Equivalence Rules

## Modal Models

## Using Models to Test Validity

## Modal Arguments with Non-modal Propositions

## Counterfactuals

# Predicate Logic

## Subjects and Predicates

## Variables and Quantifiers

## Well-formed Formulas (WFFs) of Predicate Logic

## Categorical Propositions

## Venn Diagrams

## Symbolizing Simple Categorical Propositions

## Symbolizing Complex Categorical Propositions

## Symbolizing Non-categorical Propositions

## The Domain of Quantification

## Relational Predicates

## Inference and Equivalence Rules

## Proofs in Predicate Logic

# Non-deductive Inferences

## Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments

## Inductive Generalization (Enumerative Induction)

## Inference to the Best Explanation

## Analogical Inferences

## Statistical Inferences

# Probabilistic Reasoning

## Probabilities and Credences

## Epistemic and Practical Rationality

### Probabilism

### Bayesianism

### Bayesian Decision Theory

## Probabilistic Models of Evidence

### The Bayesian Model

### The Likelihood Principle